Kubernetes Multi-tenancy and RBAC - Advanced Scenarios and Customization

Lukas Gentele
Loft Team
6 min read

Welcome to the third part of our ongoing series on Kubernetes Multi-tenancy and RBAC. In the previous two parts, we explored the basics of multi-tenancy and RBAC in Kubernetes and how they can be leveraged to achieve secure and scalable clusters. In this third installment, we will delve deeper into advanced RBAC scenarios and customizations in multi-tenant clusters.

#Advanced RBAC Scenarios and Customizations in Multi-Tenant Clusters

RBAC in Kubernetes can be highly customized to handle complex access control scenarios, especially in multi-tenant clusters. Let’s take a look at some of the advanced RBAC scenarios that can be implemented:

#Implementing attribute-based access control (ABAC) alongside RBAC for more granular access control

RBAC is based on pre-defined roles and role bindings that grant access to resources based on the user’s role. However, sometimes you need more fine-grained access control based on attributes such as labels, annotations, or namespaces. That’s where ABAC comes in. With ABAC, you can specify policies based on attributes that apply to a specific resource or group of resources, allowing for more granular access control. This is especially useful in multi-tenant clusters where different teams or users have different requirements and workloads.

For example, let’s say you have a multi-tenant Kubernetes cluster where each tenant has their own set of resources and namespaces. With ABAC, you can create policies that restrict access to specific resources or namespaces based on the tenant’s attributes. This ensures that tenants only have access to the resources they need and prevents accidental or intentional access to other tenants' resources.

#Customizing Kubernetes API server flags for additional RBAC configurations

The Kubernetes API server has a set of flags that allow you to customize the behavior of RBAC. For example, you can set a flag to enable or disable aggregation of roles across namespaces or configure the maximum number of roles that can be assigned to a user. These flags give you more control over how RBAC operates and can be used to enhance security and usability.

One useful flag is the –authorization-mode flag, which allows you to specify the authorization modes that the API server should use. By default, RBAC is the only authorization mode enabled. However, you can enable other modes such as Node or Webhook authorization to provide additional layers of security and access control.

#Developing custom admission controllers for advanced access control requirements

Admission controllers are plugins that intercept and modify requests to the Kubernetes API server. By developing custom admission controllers, you can add your own validation rules or policies to enforce advanced access control requirements. For example, you can create an admission controller that prevents users from creating pods in certain namespaces or that only allows pods to be created with specific labels.

Another use case for admission controllers is to enforce compliance policies. For example, you can create an admission controller that checks if a pod’s image is from a trusted registry or that all containers in a pod have resource limits set. This ensures that all workloads in the cluster adhere to your organization’s security and compliance policies.

#Integrating external identity providers for centralized authentication and authorization

Kubernetes supports integration with external identity providers such as Active Directory, LDAP, or OAuth for centralized authentication and authorization. This allows you to leverage your existing user management infrastructure and policies and apply them to Kubernetes resources.

One popular integration method is OIDC (OpenID Connect) integration with Kubernetes. OpenID Connect is a standard protocol for federated authentication and authorization. Kubernetes supports OIDC integration via the kube-apiserver flag –oidc-issuer-url. With OIDC, you can authenticate users with an identity provider such as Google, Microsoft, or Okta and then use RBAC to control access to Kubernetes resources.

OIDC integration also enables single sign-on (SSO) for Kubernetes. Once a user is authenticated with the identity provider, they can access Kubernetes resources without having to provide additional credentials. This improves user experience and reduces the risk of credential theft or misuse.

#Implementing fine-grained access control with Open Policy Agent (OPA) and Gatekeeper

Access control is a critical aspect of any system that deals with sensitive data or operations. While RBAC is a powerful access control mechanism, it has some limitations. For example, RBAC policies cannot be dynamic or flexible enough to handle all scenarios. That’s where Open Policy Agent (OPA) and its Kubernetes integration, Gatekeeper, come in. With OPA, you can define custom policies using the Rego language and enforce them using Gatekeeper.

#Introduction to OPA and its integration with Kubernetes

OPA is a general-purpose policy engine that can be used to enforce policies across different systems and use cases. In Kubernetes, OPA can be used to define custom policies that are not possible with RBAC alone. OPA provides a powerful and flexible policy language called Rego, which allows you to define policies that are easy to understand and maintain.

For example, you can define policies that restrict access to certain resources based on the user’s role, namespace, or other criteria. You can also define policies that require certain labels or annotations to be present on resources before they can be created or modified.

#Defining custom policies with Rego language

Rego is a declarative programming language used to define policies in OPA. Rego policies can be analyzed and tested separately from the policy engine itself, making it easier to develop and manage custom policies. Rego policies are written in a syntax that resembles JSON, making it easy to understand and work with.

Rego policies can be as simple or as complex as you need them to be. You can define policies that are based on simple conditions like user roles or namespaces, or you can define policies that take into account complex relationships between resources.

#Enforcing policies with Gatekeeper in a multi-tenant cluster

Gatekeeper is a Kubernetes admission controller that enforces OPA policies at the time of resource creation. By deploying Gatekeeper in a multi-tenant cluster, you can achieve fine-grained access control that complements RBAC. Gatekeeper intercepts requests to create or modify resources and checks them against the policies defined in OPA. If a request violates a policy, it is rejected and an error message is returned to the user.

Gatekeeper can be configured to enforce policies at different levels of granularity, such as cluster-wide, namespace-wide, or at the level of individual resources. This allows you to tailor your policies to the specific needs of your organization and applications.

In conclusion, Open Policy Agent (OPA) and Gatekeeper provide a powerful and flexible way to implement fine-grained access control in Kubernetes. By defining custom policies using the Rego language and enforcing them with Gatekeeper, you can achieve a level of control over your resources that is not possible with RBAC alone.


In this article, we explored advanced RBAC scenarios and customizations in multi-tenant Kubernetes clusters. We discussed how ABAC, custom admission controllers, external identity providers, and OPA with Gatekeeper can be used to achieve fine-grained access control and enhanced security. By leveraging these advanced access control mechanisms, you can create a secure and scalable multi-tenant Kubernetes cluster.

Sign up for our newsletter

Be the first to know about new features, announcements and industry insights.